Older people want to shop shock

shopping trolleyIt is a paradox that older people make up a large and growing number of consumers – presenting a tremendous opportunity – yet they are almost entirely ignored by marketing executives. Over-50s need and want to buy stuff like anyone else, but some 90% of marketing spend is directed at younger people.

A report out today from the International Longevity Centre (ILC), published by Age UK, attempts to tease out some of the reasons behind this. These turn out to be a complex nexus of ignorance, prejudice, myopia (metaphorical as well as literal) and ineptitude. What’s more, according to the report’s author David Sinclair, many of the market barriers he has identified are exactly the same as those that were first noted 50 years ago. We may be a maturing population but our marketing techniques are going nowhere.

The Golden Economy is compiled from existing literature and new research and is full of ideas. The causes of market failure being so complex, unfortunately the report can offer no single explanation of what’s gone wrong or how to put it right. One of its clearest messages is that significant numbers of older people are spending less than their incomes would appear to allow: it’s not simply lack of money holding back spending.

The true barriers are best understood from anecdotal evidence: the housebound man who would like to buy by mail order but can’t get to the Post Office to return goods; the blind woman who would like to buy stylish clothes, but has no one to tell her how they look when she tries them on. In many European cities, over-50s are one of the main groups eating out, yet restaurant menus are printed in such a way that it is virtually impossible for anyone over 50 to read them without glasses.

Often these obstacles are the result of a simple lack of thought, of designers and marketers failing to put themselves in the shoes of their consumers. At the root of that lies ageism – a reluctance to think about getting older, presumably in the hope that, if ignored, it might simply go away. A vicious circle sets in: advertisers don’t pay attention to the older market, so the media don’t see any need to cover or address older people, so older people feel they don’t matter and have no right to assert themselves. Too often, they blame their own shortcomings for the lack of services (‘What else can I expect at my age?’)

There are dismayingly few examples of good practice, although David Sinclair cited an interesting case at the launch event for the report. Some time ago, Google doubled the size of its entry box without explanation. The only clue to what was going on came from a small blog by a designer, who revealed the move was meant to make the search engine more accessible. Good inclusive design, as has been noted again and again, is almost unnoticeable because it benefits everyone.

Girls shopping

This is how you have to look when you go shopping

There is a real problem in marketing to older consumers, in that no one wants to think of themselves as old, or even ‘older’. So you have to take age out of the equation while thinking of what works for people who for any number of reasons are not standard, or fully fit. But in a profoundly ageist society, that’s a big ask. Think of shopping, and what do you visualise? I’d be surprised if it’s not twentysomething girls with carrier bags: shopping is presented as an exclusively youthful pleasure.

Yet older people need to eat and care for their homes and wear clothes and have a good time as much as anyone else. This report is a useful reminder of that, while also painting a rather daunting picture of how far we have to go to give everyone fair and easy access to the goods they need.

ILC report

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Age doesn’t tell you anything

Frisky older people on a beach

From here to eternity?

One of the many lessons ageing populations are starting to teach us is that age is a rubbish way of categorising people. Advertisers have been obsessed for years with selling to an 18-49 or 25-54 demographic and, partly as a result, we are stuck with the idea that people over the age of 50 or 55 are somehow of a piece with people over the age of 90: none of them of much interest, at least if you’re an advertiser, or, consequently, a media outlet.

The truth is that one person aged 50 isn’t even like a lot of other people aged 50, let alone with most 90 year-olds. But age goes on being used as a proxy for other characteristics – principally, as far as older people are concerned, two identities, which we might call frisky retirement and frailty.

We see the friskily retired bouncing along in ads for insurance and cruises, usually outdoors, often on a beach, evidently still having masses of great sex. This is the opportunity, so often talked about, that is offered by the ageing population – to sell things, of course; but also (to be less cynical, momentarily) to evolve new ways of life, because they are living longer with much higher levels of education, better health and more money than any generation before.

The frail include the lost tribe of the lonely, as well as the demented and the residents of care homes. They are the fourth agers, approaching death whether from near or far, and we turn away from them in fear. They explain the other reason that the 50-plus population is seen as a homogeneous lump. This is a period that none of us wants to contemplate, and if we concentrate on the idea of a long, sex-filled third age hiking through woods to the beach, we don’t have to.

Sometimes, when it suits, there’s an effort to subdivide the ageing population: the third age and the fourth, the young-old versus the old-old. But this too, uses age as a proxy for other, more germane characteristics; it’s not really very helpful, because it’s perfectly possible to be old-old at 65, as well as one of the youngest-seeming young-old.

The research company Nielsen recently pointed out that the Baby Boomer generation was neglected by brand marketers, who have never taken much interest in the over-50s, but who now face a population skewed towards the old in terms both of numbers and disposable income. This was greeted in some quarters as a statement of the obvious, but there have been rather fewer ideas about how to change it.

Some efforts, it is true, are being made to segment and reach the older consumer. Generation Jones, the creation of Jonathan Pontell, has gained some traction by sectioning off the group born between 1954 and 1965. In an American context, Jonesers are slightly younger than the Baby Boomers, and they are of huge interest to marketers, given that they include Barack Obama and any number of people who currently run things.

(The Jones reference is said to come from the Counting Crows song Mr Jones, though I’ve listened to it and I’m not sure why. I assumed at first it was something to do with Bridget, although she already has quite enough cultural baggage. Wikipedia seems to think it’s got something to do with the slang term Jonesing – new to me – meaning yearning or craving.)

Jonesers are a start, but they are an age-led start, subject to the same reductive stereotypes as so much discussion about ageing. Which is not to say that age is irrelevant; but it doesn’t explain the totality of people’s interests and anxieties, let alone their identities. We have allowed ourselves to become so focused on age that we are incapable of seeing the diversity that the part of life after 50 – half of many lives – entails.

A few marketing experts have urged an age-neutral approach, noting, for example, (who woulda thought!) that 41% of iPads in the US have been bought by the over-50s. But even this falls prey to the lump of ageing fallacy: the idea that the over 50s are a distinct group, or at best two distinct groups, and they need managing and including (poor loves).

In fact, they’re a group that needs to be unpicked, unbound, seen as a bundle of niche enthusiasms and diverse people making intricately personal choices. Just like young people, in fact. Our antipathy to ageing, combined with deeply-rooted marketing and advertising prejudice, has allowed older people to be treated as a lump, in a way that no one would any longer think of imagining the young. Which is daft really, when you think that the older people get, the greater the extremes of capacity they display.

Ageing is both an opportunity and a tragedy. Sometimes, because things are complicated, both at the same time. Much like the rest of life, then.